Testing CLTS Approaches to Scalability: Systematic Literature Review

This report presents findings from a systematic literature review conducted by The Water Institute at UNC as part of the Plan International USA project: “Testing Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS)  Approaches for Scalability” (TCAS). The report is a result of a sub-agreement to UNC from Plan  International USA, the recipient of a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). Despite widespread implementation of CLTS and many claims of success, no systematic review has been carried out on the effectiveness and impact of CLTS programs. The two objectives of this systematic review were to characterize the breadth of peer-reviewed and grey literature on CLTS, and to describe available evidence on the impact of key internal actors-natural leaders, teachers, and local government-on sanitation and hygiene outcomes.

Testing CLTS Approaches to Scalability: Systematic Literature Review. V. Venkataramanan. 2012. The Water Institute at UNC, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. https://waterinstitute.unc.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/3640/2015/03/CLTS-Systematic-Literature-Review-Final-Report-Appendix-1-4.pdf