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In 2017, World Vision and the Water Institute at UNC conducted an evaluation of WV’s water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) programs in 14 countries. The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the status of WaSH service delivery in households, at water points, and in schools and healthcare facilities (HCFs). Data collection occurred in 2017 in Ethiopia, Ghana, Honduras, India, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Methods and tools

The World Vision and Water Institute partnership has focused on building evidence for impact using rigorous methods to collect high quality data for learning and program improvement. In order to maximize the impact of the tools that were developed, we are sharing the updated indicators, manuals, and surveys used in this evaluation. Our hope is that sharing these open-source resources will empower partners to implement and refine their own MEL processes.

The Water Institute partnered with several organizations in order to make this evaluation possible. This included using Aquagenx water quality testing field kits and compartment bag tests (CBTs), as well as mobile surveys through mWater. Please see the enumerator manuals for more details about water quality testing methods.

To access the updated indicators, manuals, and surveys used in the World Vision 14-country evaluation, please follow the links below. It is important to note that the surveys have been updated to reflect lessons learned from this project, and therefore they do not directly match the data repositories that are below in the “results” section.

Indicators

The Water Institute developed WaSH indicators for MEL at the household, community, and institution level. For information about Sustainable Development Goal indicators, click here.

Manuals

Manuals were developed for enumerators participating in MEL activities, and also for supervisors responsible for training and data collection.

Surveys

Surveys were developed to collect data on community characteristics, for assessing water points, and for monitoring WaSH services in households, healthcare facilities, and schools.

Results

To see the data collected by the Water Institute for the World Vision WaSH evaluation, please click on the subset of data you would like to see: households, water points, healthcare facilities, or schools. These data are hosted on the UNC “dataverse“, which makes published datasets available for viewing, additional analysis, and citation.

WaSH in healthcare facilities: We disaggregated data on WaSH in healthcare facilities by Joint Monitoring Programme service levels in this report, and also produced a document with programmatic recommendations related to healthcare facilities.

Each study country has a 2-page summary of results related to each of the following: households, water points, healthcare facilities, and schools.

South Asia

India

Households

Water points

Healthcare facilities

Schools


Latin America and Caribbean

Honduras

Households

Water points

Healthcare facilities

Schools


East Africa

Ethiopia

Households

Water points

Healthcare facilities

Schools


Kenya

Households

Water points

Healthcare facilities

Schools

Rwanda

Households

Water points

Healthcare facilities

Schools


Tanzania

Households

Water points

Healthcare facilities

Schools

Uganda

Households

Water points

Healthcare facilities

Schools

Southern Africa

Malawi

Households

Water points

Healthcare facilities

Schools


Mozambique

Households

Water points

Healthcare facilities

Schools


Zambia

Households

Water points

Healthcare facilities

Schools


Zimbabwe

Households

Water points

Healthcare facilities

Schools


West Africa

Ghana

Households

Water points

Healthcare facilities

Schools


Mali

Households

Water points

Healthcare facilities

Schools


Niger

Households

Water points

Healthcare facilities

Schools

Reporting

WV and the WI conducted an evaluation of WV’s WaSH programs across 14 countries to assess the status of WaSH and the effectiveness of programming. This was the largest WaSH evaluation conducted to date with 36,860 households, 2,532 water points, 2,035 HCFs, and 2,691 schools sampled across 14 countries; and a total of 11,411 water quality samples collected. In the interest of transparency and maximizing the impact of these findings, we are reporting the results as an open-source resource on the Water Institute website.

Below you will find links to resources including a presentation that gives an overview of lessons learned, the final report produced for World Vision, and a page with peer-reviewed publications that resulted from this project.

Lessons learned

An overview of lessons learned from this project is available in this presentation.

Final report

Findings from the World Vision 14-country evaluation are consolidated in this Final Report and Annexes.

Publications

The Water Institute has produced several peer-reviewed publications based on the World Vision WaSH evaluation. Several papers are under review at journals — we will update this list as more papers are published.

  • Cronk, R., Guo, A., Fleming, L., & Bartram, J. (2020) Factors associated with water quality, sanitation, and hygiene in rural schools in 14 low- and middle-income countries. Science of the Total Environment. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969720377573?via%3Dihub
  • Fisher, M. B., Danquah, L., Seidu, Z., Fechter, A. N., Saga, B., Bartram, J. K., Liang, K. M., & Ramaswamy, R. (2020). WaSH CQI : Applying continuous quality improvement methods to water service delivery in four districts of rural northern Ghana. PLOS One. 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233679
  • Guo, A. Z., & Bartram, J. K. (2019). Predictors of water quality in rural healthcare facilities in 14 low- and middle-income countries. Journal of Cleaner Production, 237, 117836. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.117836 
  • Guo, A., Bowling, J. M., Bartram, J., & Kayser, G. (2017). Water, sanitation, and hygiene in rural health-care facilities: a cross-sectional study in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 97(4), 1033–1042. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0208