Water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools: status and implications of low coverage in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia

Adequate access to water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools affects health and educational outcomes; however, there are few multi-country studies that assess water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools in rural sub-Saharan Africa. We administered 2270 surveys to rural schools in six sub-Saharan African countries to assess access, continuity, quality, quantity, and reliability for water, sanitation, and hygiene. We found that access to improved water sources on premises, improved sanitation, and water and soap for handwashing ranged from 1-23% in the sampled schools, with less than 20% observed to have at least four of five recommended menstrual hygiene services. Immediate opportunities to improve water, sanitation, and hygiene services in schools are available and include the construction of protected water sources on school premises, and waste bins and water by latrines.

Water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools: status and implications of low coverage in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia. Camille Morgan, Michael Bowling, Jamie Bartram, and Georgia Kayser. 2017. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, Volume 220, Issue 6: 950-959. doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.03.015.