Water quality monitoring programs support provision of safe drinking water. A recent multi-country study in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health characterized monitoring approaches, compliance with requirements, and costs in Cambodia, Colombia, India, Jordan, Peru, South Africa, and Uganda. Compliance with government-prescribed monitoring requirements averaged 63% across the seven countries. Transportation and labor together comprise over half the cost of monitoring small, remote water supplies, demonstrating the need for cost-saving innovations and a fundamental re-thinking of monitoring requirements.
Crocker, Jonny, and Jamie Bartram. 2014. “Comparison and Cost Analysis of Drinking Water Quality Monitoring Requirements Versus Practice in Seven Developing Countries.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11 (7) (July 18): 7333–7436. doi:10.3390/ijerph110707333.