Models of Unsafe Return of Excreta in Four Countries

This report describes efforts to develop and test a framework to quantify, on a national scale, the unsafe return of excreta to the environment. In other words, this work attempts to estimate the fraction of excreta returned to the environment with significant potential to spread disease. The report describes the development and field-testing of models to estimate how much sanitation technologies and services reduce the excreta-related public health hazard released to the environment, based on existing national statistics and local sanitation expertise. If sufficiently valid and practical, such models can help set priorities for action by identifying the main failures (so-called “leaks”) in sanitation services that result in the unsafe return of excreta to the environment. These models can also estimate the performance of basic sanitation technologies and services in hazard reduction.

Read the report here: Models of Unsafe Return of Excreta in Four Countries.

Find the sample workbooks here:

open access July 2019 Sénégal workbook

open access July 2019 Mozambique workbook

open access July 2019 Indonesia workbook

open access July 2019 Ghana workbook

Proof of Concept of Estimates for the Unsafe Return of Human Excreta: Models of Unsafe Return of Excreta in Four Countries. P. Kolsky, L. Fleming, J. Bartram. 2019. The Water Institute at the UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.