Climate change and water and sanitation: likely impacts and emerging trends for action

Climate change represents a significant challenge of the twenty-first century and poses risks to water and sanitation services. We reviewed the impacts of climate change on water and sanitation services and describe approaches to preventing and managing impacts. Concerns for water supply include flooding damage to infrastructure, loss of water sources due to declining rainfall and increasing demand, and in the water quality changes in water sources and water distribution, all of which increase health risks. Sanitation concerns include infrastructure damage and loss of services from floods, as well as reduced carrying capacity of waters receiving wastewater. To reduce risks, climate resilience must be integrated into existing risk management approaches and water and sanitation programs should consider climate finance.

Climate change and water and sanitation: likely impacts and emerging trends for action. Guy Howard, Roger Calow, Alan Macdonald, and Jamie Bartram. 2016. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 41: 253-276. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-110615-085856.